ویل رایت؛ طراح بازیهای متفاوت
ویل رایت (Will Wright) همبنیانگذار شرکت ماکسیس (Maxis) و طراح بازیهای مانند SimCity، SIMS یا Spore است. لازم به ذکر است که بازی SIMS پس از انتشار در سال 2009 عنوان پرفروشترین بازی تاریخ را در آن زمان از آن خود کرد. برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر در مورد ویل رایت به صفحۀ ویکیپدیای او میتوانید سری بزنید.
مفاهیمی که در ادامه خواهید خواند، مفاهیمی هستند که ویل رایت در مسترکلاس طراحی بازی به آنها اشاره کرد. اینها شاید تمام تمام تعاریف موجود در طراحی بازی نباشند ولی دانستن آنها میتواند اطلاعات خیلی خوبی به ما در مورد این حوزه بدهد. طراحی بازی حوزهای گسترده است که نیازمند تمرین و مطالعه کافیست. به همین خاطر اگر قصد طراحی بازی دارید، به این مفاهیم بسنده نکنید و به دنبال منابع گوناگون و تمرینهای مکرر باشید.
مفاهیمی از طراحی بازی که در این مقاله به آنها اشاره شده، به زبان انگلیسی هستند، نه به این دلیل که ترجمۀ آنها زمانبر است، بلکه به این خاطر که در صورت ترجمۀ آنها، معنای آنها کمی گنگ و بلااستفاده مینمود. از طرفی برای کسب دانش بیشتر در این حوزه باید از زبان انگلیسی استفاده کنید!
- مبانی طراحی بازی – The Fundamentals of Game Design
- تولید مفهوم بازیها – Generating Game Concepts
- نمونهسازی سریع – Early Prototyping
- رابطۀ بین داستان و بازیها – The Relationship Between Story and Games
- کاوش در روانشناسی بازیکن – Exploring Player Psychology
- طراحی تجربههای بازیکن محور – Design Player-Centered Experiences
- توسعۀ یک زبان بازی – Develop a Game Language
- طراحی زیبایی بصری – Designing a Visual Aesthetic
- مکانیکهای بازی – Game Mechanics
- تکرار و توسعه – Iteration and Scoping
- تست بازی – Playtesting
- ارائه ایدهها – Pitching Ideas
- انتخاب و درک پلتفرم – Choosing and Understanding Your Platform
- طراحی سیستم – System Design
- همکاری و راهبری – Leadership and Collaboration
The Fundamentals of Game Design
Play (v.) To engage in recreational activities like exploration, discovery, and experimentation, often in a symbolic representation of the real world.
Prototype (n.) A rough but playable version of a game created early in the design process.
Win State (n.) The objective conditions that must be achieved for a player to win a game.
Zero-sum Game (n.) A game with clear winners and losers. Gains by one player are balanced exactly through losses suffered by another.
Goal state (n.) A condition in which a player is seeking to accomplish a task or objective.
Lose State (n.) The objective conditions that must be achieved for a player to lose a game.
Generating Game Concepts
Emergence (n.) A design phenomenon in which features of play manifest independently when the player interacts with the game mechanics and sets the system in motion. In its adjective form, emergent can describe narratives, strategy, and even gameplay.
Prototype (n.) The simplest possible execution of a design concept.
Paper Prototyping (v.) To use simple analog materials to create an interactive experience which answers a design question by testing a game concept or feature.
Iterative Design (n.) A repeating design process in which a prototype is tested, results are analyzed, and the prototype is rebuilt based on the findings.
The Relationship Between Story and Games
Emotional Palette (n.) The range of potential feelings a given medium can produce within its audience.
Agency (n.) The power to control your own actions accompanied by the knowledge that you are able to do so.
Linear Storytelling (n.) A traditional narrative structure in which the audience follows a story in the order of beginning, middle, and end.
Nonlinear Storytelling (n.) A less traditional narrative structure in which the beats of the story are presented out of order, or discovered by the audience in the order of their choice.
Machinima (n.) A medium of communal art in which fans use computer graphics engines from proprietary softwares to create original cinematic narratives.
Exploring Player Psychology
Agency (n.) The power to control your own actions, accompanied by the knowledge that you are able to do so.
Schema (n.) A mental framework of expectations used to perceive and respond to a given experience.
Feedback (n.) – Outputs of a system, returned as inputs into that same system.
Game Loop (n.) A closed feedback loop in which a player is introduced to a challenge, attempts to overcome that challenge, and adjusts their future behavior based on success or failure.
Mental Model (n.) The interior structure of motivation your game builds in the mind of the player.
Design Player-Centered Experiences
Flow State (n.) A state of complete absorption in a task, characterized by a loss of time.
Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA) (n.) A game feature in which the system automatically raises or lowers the difficulty of the game to match the player’s skill level moment by moment.
Nested Game Loops (n.) A structure of game loops in which smaller challenges represent constituent parts of larger, more complex challenges.
Failure State (n.) The condition in which a player doesn’t accomplish a stated challenge or objective. Usually found at the end of a game loop and accompanied by negative feedback.
Incentives (n.) Elements of your game system which motivate player behavior and foster engagement in your game world.
Core Game Loop (n.) The repeating challenge or interaction progressing the player through objectives to eventually achieve the win condition.
Orthogonal Game Loop (n.) A repeating challenge or interaction that does not advance the player toward the win condition.
Develop a Game Language
Game Language (n.) A shared system of signs and symbols the designer uses to communicate with their player.
Game Verbs (n.) The actions available to a player in the game world.
Game Nouns (n.) The intractable objects and persons that populate your game world.
Game Adjectives (n.) The subjective character of the game nouns that color the experience of interacting with them.
Designing a Visual Aesthetic
Pixel (n.) The illuminated, colored squares that produce images on a digital display.
Pixel Art (n.) A 2-D visual style that uses pixels to render and animate the characters and environments within a game. Pixel art styles often reference early video game aesthetics popularized by consoles such as Atari, Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), and Sega Genesis.
Low-poly (n.) A 3-D visual style based on the simple, blocky shapes produced by meshes with a low polygon count. Low-poly styles are less graphically demanding and more stylized than their high-poly counterparts.
High-poly (n.) A 3-D visual style common in high-quality animation that uses high polygon meshes to produce realistic, complex shapes and structures. High-poly styles are graphically demanding and tend to achieve a sense of realism.
Affordance (adj.) The range of possible interactions visible and understandable to the player at a given time.
Game Mechanics (n.) The sub-systems and processes of interaction that constitute the underlying structure of the larger game system. They are objective—the “if” levers that produce predictable “then” outcomes within your system.
Game Dynamics (n.) Moments of play produced by the game system in motion with player inputs. When a player starts conversing with a game system through its game mechanics, the conversation produces the game dynamics, or the whole game system in motion.
Iteration and Scoping
Scripting Language (n.) A type of programming language in which you can run your code to test it without compiling it first.
Local Maximum (n.) The point at which prototyping or testing no longer improves your design.
Engineer (n.) The person(s) on a game design team responsible for writing the underlying code. Also referred to as a developer, programmer, or coder.
Designer (n.) The person or persons on a game design team who determine the player experience and develop game features to produce that experience.
Scope (n.) The total number of features a design team can realistically implement, given the time and resources at their disposal.
Open-world (adj.) A game environment with multiple active objectives and a large map through which the player travels with full freedom.
Kleenex Test (v.) To playtest a game with a pair of players, without the intention of having them test the game again.
User Interface (n.) The external graphical elements within a game through which the player interacts with and impacts the game world.
Focus Group Testing (n.) An open discussion with a sampling of players in the demographic you are trying to reach about their experience with your game.
Beta Test (n.) The final test phase of your game before launch.
Turn-based (adj.) A game system in which the sequence of play is broken down into rounds during which a player takes some limited number of actions.
Real-time (adj.) A game system in which play proceeds without stoppage.
Pitch (n.) A concise description of your game, meant to sell the experience to a specific audience.
Elevator Pitch (n.) The shortest possible version of your pitch, usually 30 seconds to one minute.
Logline (n.) A marketing pitch in one or two sentences describing the core experience of your game.
Choosing and Understanding Your Platform
Platform (n.) The hardware that runs and controls the software of your game.
Micro-transaction (n.) Small purchases made by the player during the course of play.
Accelerometer (n.) The internal instrument in a device that tracks acceleration and tilt.
Monetary Model (revenue model) (n.) The payment method and pay structure the player uses to purchase your game.
Free To Play (F2P) (adj.) A revenue model in which the core game loop is available for free, but players can purchase upgrades through micro-transactions that accelerate their progress through the experience.
Platform Affordance (n.) Interactions available to the player through the hardware specific to a given platform, such as a touchscreen or controller vibration.
Cellular Automaton (n.) A grid-based system in which cells have programmed rules for population or depopulation.
Network (n.) Linked pathways through which agents move within your system.
Stable System (n.) A system in which outcomes do not vary dramatically based on small changes in initial conditions.
Agent (n.) An object that populates your system. Each has their own properties and behaviors.
Layer (n.) Global parameters which govern the behavior of agents within your system.
Chaotic System (n.) A system in which outcomes vary dramatically based on small changes in initial conditions.
Determinism (n.) Moments in which players can predict the outcomes of their behaviors with certainty.
Leadership and Collaboration
Programmer (n.) A team member responsible for producing the underlying code of the game, or using a scripting language to produce certain game behaviors. Also known as an “engineer.”
Character Artist (n.) A team member responsible for doing concept sketches for the characters and enemies within the game, then producing the digital art assets that become animate objects in the game world.
Sound Designer (n.) A team member responsible for determining and producing any audio elements within your game, including effects, music, and user interface queues.
Art Director (n.) A team member responsible for determining the overall visual aesthetic of the game. Often doubles as an artist on the project.
Environment Artist (n.) A team member responsible for doing concept sketches of the game world itself, then producing the digital assets that become the terrain, buildings, and backgrounds.
User Interface Designer (n.) A team member responsible for designing the menus, overlays, and other non-diegetic elements a player uses to navigate and interact with the game world.
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